Abdominal Pain in Female: Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

Reviewed By Dr. Paras Sharma

Abdominal Pain in Female

Abdominal pain is a common complaint experienced by individuals of all genders, but it can present unique challenges in females due to the complex anatomy and reproductive system. Abdominal pain in females can arise from various causes, ranging from benign to potentially serious conditions such as pregnancy, acute appendicitis, and intestinal obstruction. [1] Understanding the causes, recognizing the symptoms, and seeking appropriate treatment is essential for effective management and overall well-being. This article explores the common causes of abdominal pain, abdominal pain symptoms, and abdominal pain treatment options in females.

What are the Causes of Abdominal Pain in Females?

There are various causes of abdominal pain in women, some of which include:

Menstrual Cramps (Dysmenorrhea):

Dysmenorrhea refers to the painful cramps experienced by many women before and during their menstruation. It is caused by the release of prostaglandins, which cause spasmodic myometrial contractions responsible for the crampy menstrual pain. The pain is typically felt as lower abdominal pain and may be accompanied by back and leg pain. [2]

Ovarian Cysts:

Ovarian cysts are a common gynecological problem, and are one of the main causes of abdominal pain, depending on their size, type, and location. Pain may be felt as a dull ache in the abdomen and lower back, or acute severe pain may occur in complicated cases. [3]


Endometriosis is a common condition in which the tissue in the uterine lining grows outside of it. This abnormal tissue growth can lead to chronic pelvic pain and often leads to infertility. Women with endometriosis often experience painful periods and painful intercourse, and feel pain during defecation or urination, abdominal pain leading to anxiety and depression. [4]

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID):

PID is an infection of the endometrium, fallopian tubes, or contiguous structures, usually caused by gonorrhea, chlamydia and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Apart from lower abdominal pain in PID, a patient may also show symptoms such as abnormal vaginal discharge, and also fever, vomiting, and nausea. [5]

Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs):

UTIs are bacterial infections of the urinary tract, including the bladder and urethra. The bacterial infection can sometimes move to the kidneys, causing more severe symptoms. Abdominal pain, a frequent urge to urinate, a burning and stinging sensation during urination, and cloudy, unclear or bloody urine are common symptoms of UTIs. [6]

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS):

IBS is a chronic disorder affecting the intestine, characterized by chronic and recurrent abdominal pain, bloating, gas, and changes in bowel habits. It is one of the primary reasons for abdominal pain and is more common in females and can be triggered by stress and certain foods. [7]

Gastrointestinal Disorders:

Among the other common reasons for abdominal pain are various gastrointestinal disorders such as peptic ulcers, dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome, and abdominal pain syndrome can cause lower abdominal pain female. These conditions often present with additional symptoms such as diarrhea, constipation, fibromyalgia, and depression. [8]

What are the Symptoms of Abdominal Pain in Females?

The abdominal pain symptoms can vary depending on the underlying cause, but some common signs and symptoms include:

  • Sharp, cramping, burning, or stabbing pain in the abdomen.
  • Distension or edema.
  • Nausea and vomiting, pallor, and sweating
  • Changes in bowel habits (diarrhea or constipation)
  • Changes in urinary frequency
  • Fever and chills. [9]

What are the Treatment Options for Abdominal Pain in Females?

Some of the primary abdominal pain treatment options include:


Treatment for Abdominal Pain in Females

In certain cases, appropriate antibiotics are prescribed as abdominal pain treatment for the underlying infection. In some conditions, empirical antibiotic treatment may be given when establishing the working diagnosis of abdominal pain without waiting for the results of culture tests. [10]

Surgical Intervention:

In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to treat as surgical procedures aim to remove the source of the pain or repair any abnormalities within the reproductive or gastrointestinal system. [10]

Alternative Therapies:

Sometimes advanced diagnostic approaches such as radiography and endoscopy enhance the treatment for acute abdomen. Complementary and alternative therapies, such as therapeutic endoscopy, interventional radiology treatment, and adult laparoscopy therapy, may relieve some individuals experiencing abdominal pain. [10]


  • What lifestyle modifications can be adopted to deal with lower abdominal pain and upper abdominal pain in females?

For conditions like irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), dietary changes, stress management techniques, regular exercise, and sufficient hydration can help reduce abdominal pain and improve overall well-being.

  • What causes lower abdominal pain in females?

To answer the question of, what causes lower abdominal pain in females, it is important to look at the conditions affecting the intestines as they are the most common causes of lower abdominal pain. Other common causes include pregnancy, menopause, liver or gallbladder problems, ovarian cysts, and kidney stones.

  • How can lower abdominal pain female be cured through Ayurveda?

Ayurvedic treatments for lower abdominal pain female

Some of the best Ayurvedic treatments for managing lower abdominal pain female include:

✓ Panchakarma: A variety of natural therapies are adopted under Panchakarma for relocating digestive strength, eliminating toxins from the body, and addressing the main reasons for abdominal pain.

✓ Vamana: Sometimes, the reasons for abdominal pain could also be indigestion or gastric issue. In Vamana therapy, natural herbs are used to induce vomiting and give a sense of lightness.

✓ Virechana: In this purgation therapy, a massage is given to the patient with the help of herbal oil or cow’s desi ghee to balance the aggravated doshas, which is among the top reasons for lower abdominal pain, in the most effective manner. It helps flush out toxins and provides relief from abdominal pressure.

✓ Basti: Under Basti karma, medicated oils are administered through the anal roots so as to loosen the hard stools and aid in the appropriate elimination of waste. It improves bowel movements and ends constipation as this is one of the main reasons for lower abdominal pain.

✓ Natural Herbs: Stomach cramps can be alleviated by using several potent natural herbs such as ginger, peppermint, fennel, carom seeds, garlic, parsley, saffron, lemon, asafoetida, cloves, and turmeric powder with lukewarm water.

✓ Vata-Pitta Pacifying Diet: It is important to balance Vata Dosha and Pitta Dosha. The imbalance is the prime factor and among the main reasons for lower abdominal pain. By consuming fruits such as Apples, Bananas, Melons, Avocados, Sweet potatoes, Cucumber, and Zucchini, you can help balance imbalanced doshas and provide strength to the body.


Abdominal pain in females can arise from various causes, ranging from mild and transient to potentially serious conditions. It is crucial to understand abdominal pain meaning, the underlying reasons for abdominal pain, recognize the associated symptoms, and seek appropriate medical attention for accurate diagnosis and treatment. Timely intervention can help alleviate pain, manage chronic conditions, and improve the overall quality of life for females experiencing abdominal discomfort.

Disclaimer: This article is written from a health and wellness perspective and is not medical advice. Kindly seek the help of a certified medical practitioner before initiating any treatment.


  2. Menstrual pain
  3. Review of 244 cases of ovarian cysts
  4. Endometriosis
  5. Pelvic inflammatory disease
  6. Urinary tract infection: Causes, symptoms, diagnosis and it’s management
  7. Diagnosis and management of IBS
  8. Common Functional Gastroenterological Disorders Associated With Abdominal Pain
  9. Abdominal Pain
  10. Diagnostic Approach and Management of Acute Abdominal Pain

Dr. Ashwini Konnur

Dr. Ashwini has 17 years of experience in Clinical Practice, Research & Education in the field of Ayurveda with competency in acute & chronic conditions & lifestyle diseases. She has also expertise in treating Female Infertility disorders, other Gynecological Problems & General disorders along with specialised focus in Ayurvedic detoxification therapies, Panchakarma & other Ayurvedic treatments


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