Reviewed by Experts
Solanum nigrum, also known as black nightshade or makoi in Ayurvedic medicine, is a plant species that belongs to the Solanaceae family. It is native to Eurasia and Africa but is also found in many other parts of the world. So far, scientists have identified 188 chemical components in Solanum nigrum. The main bioactive constituents among them include steroidal saponins, alkaloids, phenols, and polysaccharides.The plant has been used in traditional medicine for centuries due to its various therapeutic properties. 
In this article, we will discuss the benefits, dosage, side effects, and uses of Solanum nigrum.
Benefits of Solanum Nigrum
1. Anti-inflammatory Properties
Primary Benefit: Solanum nigrum contains phytochemicals that have anti-inflammatory properties. Inflammation is a significant cause of many diseases, including arthritis, heart disease, and cancer. 
Secondary Benefit: These phytochemicals, including flavonoids, tannins, and alkaloids, can reduce inflammation in the body. 
2. Antioxidant Properties
Primary Benefit: Solanum nigrum contains antioxidants that protect the body from damage caused by free radicals. 
Secondary Benefit: Antioxidants such as phenolic acids and flavonoids in Solanum nigrum can help prevent oxidative stress, which is associated with various health problems, including cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, and heart disease. 
3. Respiratory Health
Primary Benefit: Solanum nigrum can improve respiratory health by dilating bronchial tubes and reducing inflammation in the respiratory tract. 
Secondary Benefit: The bronchodilatory effect of Solanum nigrum can help people with asthma, while the anti-inflammatory effect can help people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and other respiratory disorders. 
4. Digestive Health
Primary Benefit: Solanum nigrum can improve digestive health by breaking down food and reducing inflammation in the digestive tract. 
Secondary Benefit: Solanum nigrum can be used to treat digestive disorders such as indigestion, constipation, and diarrhoea, due to its ability to improve digestion and reduce inflammation in the digestive system. 
5. Diabetes Management
Primary Benefit: Solanum nigrum can help regulate blood sugar levels by stimulating the release of insulin. 
Secondary Benefit: The compounds in Solanum nigrum, such as saponins and flavonoids, can help reduce blood sugar levels, making it a potential treatment for diabetes and insulin resistance. 
6. Cancer Prevention
Primary Benefit: Solanum nigrum has been shown to have anti-cancer properties by inhibiting the growth of cancer cells and inducing apoptosis. 
Secondary Benefit: The compounds in Solanum nigrum, such as solasonine, solamargine, and solanine, can help prevent the development and progression of cancer, making it a potential cancer-fighting agent. 
7. Immune System Boost
Primary Benefit: Solanum nigrum can boost the immune system by stimulating the production of white blood cells. 
Secondary Benefit: The phytochemicals in Solanum nigrum, such as alkaloids and flavonoids, can stimulate the production of white blood cells, making it useful for fighting infections and diseases. 
Dosage of Solanum Nigrum
The dosage of Solanum nigrum depends on various factors, such as age, health, and the reason for use. It is essential to consult a healthcare provider before using Solanum nigrum to determine the appropriate dosage.
In Ayurvedic medicine, Solanum nigrum is typically administered in the form of a decoction or tea. The recommended dosage is one to two cups of tea per day.
In traditional Chinese medicine, Solanum nigrum is used as a tincture or powder. The recommended dosage is one to three grams per day.
In modern medicine, Solanum nigrum is available in the form of capsules or tablets. The recommended dosage is usually 500 to 1000 mg per day.
Side Effects of Solanum Nigrum
While Solanum nigrum has many health benefits, it can also have side effects when used inappropriately. Some of the side effects of Solanum nigrum are:
Solanum nigrum contains solanine, a toxic compound that can cause poisoning when consumed in large amounts. Symptoms of solanine poisoning include vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, and even death. 
Some people may be allergic to Solanum nigrum, and may experience symptoms such as itching, swelling, and difficulty breathing. 
Interactions with Medications
Solanum nigrum may interact with certain medications, such as blood thinners, diabetes medications, and sedatives. It is essential to consult a healthcare provider before using Solanum nigrum if taking any medications. 
Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
There is not enough information on the safety of Solanum nigrum during pregnancy and breastfeeding. It is best to avoid using it during these times.
Uses of Solanum Nigrum
Solanum Nigrum has various applications and uses when included in herbal formulations and treatments. Some of the uses include:
Solanum nigrum can be used for skin care. It contains antioxidants that can protect the skin from damage caused by free radicals. It can also reduce inflammation in the skin, making it useful in the treatment of acne and other skin disorders. 
Solanum nigrum can be used to improve respiratory health. It contains compounds that can dilate the bronchial tubes, making it easier to breathe. It can also reduce inflammation in the respiratory tract, making it useful in complimenting the treatment of asthma and other respiratory disorders. 
Treatment of Digestive Disorders
Solanum nigrum can be used to treat digestive disorders such as indigestion, constipation, and diarrhoea. It contains enzymes that can break down food and reduce inflammation in the digestive tract. 
Regulation of Blood Sugar Levels
Solanum nigrum can be used to treat diabetes. It contains compounds that can stimulate the release of insulin, which can help regulate blood sugar levels. 
Immune System Booster
Solanum nigrum can boost the immune system. It contains phytochemicals that can stimulate the production of white blood cells, which are essential for fighting infections and diseases. 
1. Is Solanum nigrum safe to consume?
Solanum nigrum is generally safe to consume when used in moderation. However, excessive consumption of Solanum nigrum can cause toxicity and may lead to adverse effects such as diarrhoea, vomiting, and even death.
2. Can Solanum nigrum be used to treat cancer?
While Solanum nigrum has shown potential as a cancer-fighting agent, it should not be used as a sole treatment for cancer. It is essential to consult a healthcare professional and follow a comprehensive treatment plan for cancer.
3. Can pregnant or breastfeeding women consume Solanum nigrum?
Pregnant or breastfeeding women should avoid consuming Solanum nigrum due to a lack of sufficient research on its safety during pregnancy and breastfeeding.
4. Can Solanum nigrum be used topically?
Yes, Solanum nigrum can be used topically as a poultice or ointment to treat skin conditions such as rashes, eczema, and psoriasis. It is believed to have anti-inflammatory and antipruritic properties.
5. Is Solanum nigrum legal?
Yes, Solanum nigrum is legal and widely available in many countries. However, it is important to ensure that the plant is sourced from a reputable supplier and consumed in safe and appropriate doses.
Solanum nigrum is a plant species that has been used in traditional medicine for centuries due to its various therapeutic properties. It has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-cancer, and immune-boosting properties. It can also improve digestion, lower blood sugar levels, and improve respiratory health. However, it can have side effects when used inappropriately, such as toxicity and allergic reactions. It is essential to consult a healthcare provider before using Solanum nigrum to determine the appropriate dosage and ensure safety.
Disclaimer: This article is from a health and wellness perspective only and does not constitute medical advice. Kindly seek the help of a trained medical practitioner before initiating any treatment.
- Solanum nigrum Linn.: An Insight into Current Research on Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology
- Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Methanolic Extract of Solanum nigrum Linn Berries
- Antioxidant Activities of Solanum nigrum L. Leaf Extracts Determined in In Vitro Cellular Models
- Antihistaminic and antiallergic actions of extracts of Solanum nigrum berries: Possible role in the treatment of asthma
- African nightshades (Solanum nigrum complex): The potential contribution to human nutrition and livelihoods in sub-Saharan Africa
- Antidiabetic Efficiency Of Moringa Oleifera And Solanum Nigrum
- Review about mechanisms of anti-cancer of Solanum nigrum
- Solanum nigrum: Current Perspectives on Therapeutic Properties
- Pharmacological study of Solanum nigrum fruit extract
- Preliminary Phytochemical Screening, Acute Oral Toxicity and Anticonvulsant Activity of the Berries of Solanum nigrum Linn
- Solanum nigrum Linn. – A Review
- Solanum nigrum (Maku): A review of pharmacological activities and clinical effects