Vaginal cyst is an abnormal lesion that develops in the vaginal wall or near the opening of the vagina. These cysts are relatively rare and often benign, causing minimal discomfort or complications if they are small but can even cause urinary obstruction if they are large. 
There are several types of vaginal cysts like Bartholin’s duct cysts, the most common type where lesions are seen on the left-lateral vaginal wall. There are also other types of vaginal cysts like Mullerian cysts, which are lined by columnar endocervical-like or cuboidal epithelium, Gartner’s duct cysts which are all lined by cuboidal epithelium; and Epidermal inclusion cysts, which are lined by stratified non-keratinizing squamous epithelium. 
According to Ayurveda, a Vaginal cyst has been described as Yonikanda, a disease of the lower vaginal canal or vulva that has a round or irregular shape. Vataja, Pittaja, Kapaja, and Sannipataja are four types of Yonikanda mentioned in Ayurveda. 
- Vataja yonikanda: the early stage of Bartholin’s cysts
- Pittaja yoniknada: acute suppuration stage
- Kaphaja yonikanda: chronic stage
- Sannipataja yonikanda: acute suppuration in chronic Bartholin’s abscess 
While the majority of Vaginal cyst is asymptomatic, some may cause pain, dysuria, and dystocia due to their enlargement. A surgical intervention, such as cystectomy and marsupialization, is required in such cases. 
Thus, understanding the vaginal cyst causes, symptoms, types, and treatment options for vaginal cysts is important for proper diagnosis and management. In this article, we will delve into the details of vaginal cysts to provide a comprehensive overview of this condition.
Causes of Vaginal Cysts:
Vaginal cyst causes can be myriad, including:
Among the most common vaginal cyst causes is the blockage of the Bartholin’s glands, which are responsible for lubricating the vagina. When the ducts of these glands become obstructed, fluid accumulates, leading to the formation of a cyst. 
Entrapment of the mucosal epithelium:
The Vaginal cyst develops when tears or cuts appear in the vaginal walls during trauma or surgery, and they trap the lining of the vagina, causing it to form a cyst. 
Sometimes, cysts can result from embryonic remnants that fail to disappear from the embryonic urogenital duct. 
Trauma or Injury:
In rare cases, a Vaginal cyst may form due to injury or trauma to the vaginal area, such as during childbirth. 
Symptoms of Vaginal Cysts:
A Vaginal cyst may or may not produce noticeable symptoms. When vaginal cyst symptoms do occur due to their large sizes and heaviness, they can include:
- Heaviness in the perineal region and discomfort
- The feeling of swelling at the vulva
- Voiding difficulties and obstructed urinary flow, and dysuria
- Discomfort or pain during sexual intercourse
- Abnormal vaginal discharge
- A protrusion, heavy lump, or swelling near the vaginal opening 
- A painless, small sized lump close to the vaginal opening
- Redness, swelling near the opening of the vagina,
- Discomfort during walking or sitting
- If the cyst becomes infected, there may be pus draining from the cyst, along with fever and chills 
Types of Vaginal Cysts:
There are several types of vaginal cysts, each with distinct characteristics:
These cysts occur when the Bartholin’s glands become blocked, usually after trauma to the area, episiotomy, or childbirth. The Bartholin glands are mucus-secreting glands which play a role in vaginal lubrication. They typically appear on one side of the vaginal opening. 
Gartner’s Duct Cysts:
This Vaginal cyst develops from remnants of the Wolffian ducts, which are part of the fetal development of the female reproductive system. Gartner’s duct cysts are usually small and asymptomatic but can grow large during pregnancy and cause discomfort during childbirth. 
Vaginal Inclusion Cysts:
This Vaginal cyst results from the entrapment of the vaginal lining in small tears or cuts in the vaginal walls. They may occur during the healing of birth injuries or repair of perineal lacerations. 
This is a rare type of Vaginal cyst that makes its appearance after an inflammation of the vaginal mucosa with the occlusion of the glands. They are usually small in size, and the surrounding membrane inflammatory. 
Treatment Options for Vaginal Cysts:
Treatment for vaginal cysts depends on factors such as the type, size, and symptoms associated with the cyst. If the cyst is small, asymptomatic, and not causing any discomfort, it may require no vaginal cyst treatment.  Otherwise, the following approaches are commonly employed:
Incision and Drainage:
In cases of infected or painful cyst on vaginal area, a minor surgical procedure to drain the cyst and relieve symptoms immediately can be performed.
This is a rubber catheter that is inserted into the abscess after making an incision into it. A saline solution is then injected through the hub of the catheter.
This surgical technique is adopted if the cyst on vaginal area is deeply seated and involves creating a permanent opening in the cyst to allow continuous drainage.
Surgical cyst removal may be necessary if it is large, recurrent, causing significant discomfort, or suspected of being cancerous.
If the cyst is infected, antibiotics may be prescribed to treat the infection. 
Medicines such as Kaishor Guggulu, Pipalimula Panta, and Rakta shodaka kwatha along with a lepa prepared from a fine powder of Tila and Maduka with Ghee. 
How can vaginal cysts be diagnosed?
To diagnose a vaginal cyst, healthcare professionals may perform the following:
Physical Examination: The doctor will examine the vaginal area and may palpate the cyst to determine its size, location, and characteristics.
Pelvic Exam: A pelvic examination may be conducted to assess the overall health of the reproductive organs.
Imaging Tests: Ultrasound or MRI scans can provide detailed images of the cyst and its surrounding structures.
How can Vaginal cyst be prevented?
Vaginal cyst is often not preventable, especially those resulting from embryonic remnants. However, maintaining good genital hygiene and avoiding trauma or injury to the vaginal area may help reduce the risk of cysts caused by a glandular blockage or mucosal inclusion.
The prognosis for vaginal cysts is generally excellent, as most cysts are benign and can be effectively treated. Regular check-ups with healthcare professionals are recommended to monitor the condition and ensure timely intervention.
How can you first detect a cyst on vaginal wall yourself?
You can detect a cyst on vaginal wall when you feel a soft lump in the vaginal wall or protruding from the vagina. They can range in size from a pea-sized lump to that of an orange. They can also sometimes become infected, swollen, and painful.
Vaginal cyst, although uncommon, can cause discomfort and concern for individuals affected. Understanding the causes, symptoms, types, and treatment options for vaginal cysts is crucial for accurate diagnosis and appropriate management.
This article is written from a health and wellness perspective and is not medical advice. Kindly seek the help of a certified medical practitioner before initiating any treatment.
- Vaginal cysts: A common pathologic entity revisited
- Benign Cystic Lesions of the Vagina: A Literature Review
- VAGINAL CYSTS
- Bartholin Gland Cyst
- A Vaginal Cyst Causing Dysuria and Dyschezia in a Bitch
- EFFICACY OF SELECTED AYURVEDA TREATMENT MODALITY FOR BARTHOLIN’S CYST (YONIKANDA): A CASE REPORT
- Management of Bartholin’s duct cyst and gland abscess