Goiter: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & More

Reviewed By Dr. Deepa Kadam

goiter - livayur

Goiter is a condition affecting the thyroid gland, which can cause noticeable swelling in the neck. If you know someone diagnosed with goiter or are curious to learn about this condition, you’ve come to the right place.

This article looks at everything you need to know about goiter, shedding light on its various aspects. We look to provide a clear understanding of this condition, enabling you to make informed decisions about your health or support others.

What is goiter?

Goiter is a condition that has puzzled and concerned individuals for centuries. It can cause abnormal enlargement of the thyroid gland. The growth can manifest as a visible swelling or lump, leading to discomfort and difficulty swallowing. Understanding the underlying causes of goiter is crucial for effective management and treatment. [1]

What are the causes of goiter?

Let’s look at the factors that can contribute to the development of goiter.

  • Iodine deficiency

Goiter is caused due to the deficiency of iodine, which is an essential mineral required for the production of thyroid hormones. When the body lacks sufficient iodine, the thyroid gland attempts to compensate by enlarging, resulting in goiter. [1]

goiter causes

  • Toxic nodular goiter

Sometimes, goiter is caused by the presence of nodules within the thyroid gland. These nodules can be benign or cancerous and produce excessive thyroid hormone, leading to goiter. [1]

  • Medicines

Certain medications have been linked to goiter development, such as lithium (used to treat psychiatric conditions) and amiodarone (used to manage heart rhythm disorders). [1]

  • Autoimmune problem

In some cases, the body’s immune system mistakenly identifies the thyroid gland as a threat and launches an attack against it. This autoimmune response can lead to chronic inflammation and damage to the thyroid, eventually causing goiter. [1]

  • Cigarette smoking:

The chemicals present in cigarettes can interfere with thyroid hormone production and disrupt the normal functioning of the gland. Additionally, smoking can worsen underlying thyroid conditions, including autoimmune disorders associated with goiter. [1]

  • Consumption of certain foods:

While a balanced diet is essential for overall health, consuming enormous amounts of certain foods can contribute to goiter development. Foods like soy, peanuts, or vegetables in the broccoli and cabbage family can interfere with thyroid hormone synthesis and utilization, leading to goiter in susceptible individuals. [1]

What are the symptoms of goiter?

Let’s explore the common signs associated with goiter.

  • Enlarged thyroid gland

The primary symptom of goiter is the noticeable enlargement of the thyroid gland. This swelling can be visible and palpable, often as a lump or bulge in the front of the neck. [1]

  • Underactive thyroid gland

In some cases, goiter may be accompanied by an underactive thyroid gland. It happens when the thyroid gland fails to produce adequate thyroid hormones. [1]

  • Pressure on the windpipe and food tube

In rare cases, an enlarged thyroid gland can exert pressure on the nearby structures, including the windpipe (trachea) and the food tube (esophagus). This pressure can give rise to breathing difficulties, coughing, hoarseness, and swallowing difficulties. [1]

What is the diagnosis of goiter?

Let’s explore the typical diagnostic procedures involved in evaluating goiter.

  • Physical examination

During a physical examination, your healthcare provider will examine your neck, paying particular attention to the area of the thyroid gland. You may be asked to swallow to assess the movement and position of the thyroid gland. [1]

goitre disadvantages

  • Thyroid function tests

There can be a need for blood tests to evaluate the thyroid gland. These tests measure the levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (T4), and triiodothyronine (T3) in your blood. Abnormal levels of these hormones can provide insights into thyroid dysfunction. [1]

  • Biopsy

If nodules are detected during the ultrasound examination, your healthcare provider may suggest a biopsy to evaluate the tissue for thyroid cancer. [1]

What is the Ayurvedic treatment of goiter?

Ayurvedic treatment for goiter is according to the individual’s Dosha and Dhatu imbalances. Ayurvedic herbo-mineral preparations have shown effectiveness in correcting the abnormal morphology of thyroid cells and promoting the healing of nodules with hemorrhagic features. Long-term Ayurvedic management can help achieve optimal results.

Ayurveda offers a holistic approach to address the underlying imbalances and promote overall well-being in cases of goiter. However, it’s essential to consult with a qualified Ayurvedic practitioner for personalized treatment recommendations and ensure effective management of the condition. [2]


  • What is a colloid goiter?

Colloid goiter is the enlarged thyroid gland without any change in the thyroid function. It happens due to the accumulation of colloid, a substance rich in thyroid hormones, within the gland. It is the most common type of goiter and benign.

  • What causes goiter?

Goiter is caused by the deficiency of iodine, autoimmune problems, certain medications, cigarette smoking, excessive consumption of certain foods (soy, peanuts), and the presence of nodules that produce excessive thyroid hormone.

  • What is a retrosternal goiter?

Retrosternal goiter is the enlarged thyroid gland that extends beyond its usual location in the neck and moves down into the chest.


Understanding the symptoms and treatment options is essential for effectively managing this condition. From close monitoring and lifestyle modifications to medication, the treatment approach can be according to each individual’s needs.

It’s vital to consult a healthcare professional for accurate diagnosis, personalized treatment recommendations, and ongoing management. By staying informed and proactive, individuals can navigate the complexities of goiter and work towards maintaining optimal thyroid health for a better quality of life.

Disclaimer: The information provided here is not intended to replace professional advice or treatment.


  1. Goiter
  2. Ayurvedic Management of Nontoxic Nodular Goitre with Haemorrhagic Nodules, Calcification and Atypia – A Case Report. August 2022

Dr. Shankar Rao

Dr. Rao has achieved great success in his career, with 5 research projects and 4 books to his credit, as well as a Monograph. In addition to receiving the Bharat Scout & Guide Award from the President of India, Dr Rao has also won the Young Scientist Award from S.V. University, Tirupati.