Ginkgo Biloba: Benefits, Uses, Side Effects, Risk & More

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Ginkgo biloba, also known as the maidenhair tree, is one of the oldest living tree species on Earth. It has been used for centuries in traditional medicine for its various health benefits. Today, ginkgo biloba supplements are popular and widely available, touted for their potential cognitive and circulatory benefits. In this article, we will explore the potential benefits, uses, side effects, and risks associated with ginkgo biloba.

What is Ginkgo Biloba?

Ginkgo biloba is a deciduous tree native to China and is now found in various parts of the world. The Chemical structure of its leaf consists of components that include Ginkolides, Bilobalides and Ginkgolic Acids which have been observed to have various health and medical Benefits. Its unique fan-shaped leaves and distinctive seeds have made it a popular ornamental tree. However, it is the extract from the leaves of the ginkgo tree that is primarily used for medicinal purposes. [1] [2]

Benefits of Ginkgo Biloba

Antioxidant Properties

The antioxidant properties of ginkgo biloba are well-documented. Antioxidants help neutralize harmful free radicals in the body, reducing oxidative stress and preventing cellular damage. Ginkgo biloba contains flavonoids and terpenoids, which act as potent antioxidants. By reducing oxidative stress, ginkgo biloba may help protect against chronic diseases, such as heart disease, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders. [3]

Cognitive Enhancement

One of the most widely researched benefits of ginkgo biloba is its potential to enhance cognitive function, particularly in older adults. Several studies have suggested that ginkgo biloba may improve memory, attention, and cognitive processing. It is believed that the active compounds in ginkgo biloba, such as flavonoids and terpenoids, have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects that can protect and improve brain function. [4] [5]

Circulatory Support

Ginkgo biloba has been shown to have a positive impact on the circulatory system. It is believed to improve blood flow and enhance the dilation of blood vessels, which can have various benefits. Improved blood flow can help deliver oxygen and nutrients to different parts of the body, including the brain. This may explain its potential cognitive-enhancing effects. Ginkgo biloba may also aid in the management of conditions related to poor circulation, such as intermittent claudication, which causes leg pain during physical activity. [2] [6]

Eye Health

eye health - ginkgo biloba benefits

Ginkgo biloba may also benefit eye health. Its antioxidant properties and ability to improve blood flow can help protect the retina and reduce the risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). AMD is a leading cause of vision loss in older adults. While more research is needed, early studies suggest that ginkgo biloba may have a protective effect on eye health. [7]

Uses of Ginkgo Biloba

Memory Enhancement

Ginkgo biloba supplements are often used to improve memory and cognitive function. They are commonly taken by older adults experiencing age-related cognitive decline. While the evidence is not conclusive, some studies have shown promising results in terms of memory improvement and cognitive enhancement. However, it is important to note that individual responses may vary, and ginkgo biloba may not work for everyone. [8]

Vertigo and Tinnitus

vertigo and tinnitus - ginkgo biloba benefits

Ginkgo biloba has been used as a natural remedy for vertigo and tinnitus (ringing in the ears). Some studies suggest that ginkgo biloba may help reduce the intensity and frequency of vertigo episodes and alleviate tinnitus symptoms. However, further research is needed to fully understand its effectiveness in these conditions. [9]

Anxiety and Depression

In traditional medicine, ginkgo biloba has been used to help alleviate symptoms of anxiety and depression. While the scientific evidence is limited, some studies have indicated that ginkgo biloba may have a positive impact on mood disorders. It is believed that the herb’s antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, along with its potential to improve blood flow, may contribute to its antidepressant and anxiolytic effects. However, more research is needed to determine its efficacy and safety for these conditions. [10]

Asthma and Respiratory Health

Ginkgo biloba has been explored as a potential complementary therapy for asthma and other respiratory conditions. Some studies suggest that ginkgo biloba may help reduce inflammation in the airways and improve lung function. It may also have a bronchodilatory effect, which could aid in managing asthma symptoms. However, further research is required to establish its effectiveness and safety in respiratory health. [11]

Side Effects and Precautions

While ginkgo biloba is generally considered safe for most people when taken in recommended doses, it can cause certain side effects. Some individuals may experience mild gastrointestinal symptoms such as stomach upset, diarrhoea, or constipation. In rare cases, ginkgo biloba may cause allergic reactions, skin rashes, or headaches. It is important to consult a healthcare professional before starting any new supplements, especially if you have any pre-existing medical conditions or are taking medications. [2]

Ginkgo biloba may interact with certain medications, including blood thinners, antidepressants, anticonvulsants, and certain herbal supplements. It is crucial to inform your healthcare provider about all medications and supplements you are taking to avoid potential interactions. [12]

Risks and Considerations

Ginkgo biloba should be used with caution in certain populations. Pregnant and breastfeeding women are advised to avoid ginkgo biloba due to limited research on its safety in these groups. People with bleeding disorders or scheduled surgeries should also exercise caution, as ginkgo biloba may increase the risk of bleeding. Additionally, individuals with epilepsy or a history of seizures should consult their healthcare provider before using ginkgo biloba, as it may potentially lower the seizure threshold.

It is important to note that ginkgo biloba supplements are not regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the same way as prescription drugs. Therefore, the quality and potency of ginkgo biloba products can vary. It is advisable to choose reputable brands and consult with a healthcare professional before making a purchase.


1. Is Ginkgo Biloba safe to use?
Ginkgo Biloba is generally safe for most people when taken in recommended doses. However, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional, especially if you have any underlying health conditions or are taking medications.

2. How long does it take for Ginkgo Biloba to show results?
The effects of Ginkgo Biloba may vary among individuals. It may take several weeks or even months of regular use to notice any significant changes. Patience and consistency are key.

3. Can Ginkgo Biloba interact with medications?
Yes, Ginkgo Biloba may interact with certain medications, such as blood thinners and antidepressants. It is important to consult with a healthcare professional before using Ginkgo Biloba if you are taking any medications.

4. Are there any age restrictions for using Ginkgo Biloba?
There are no specific age restrictions for using Ginkgo Biloba. However, it is always advisable to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any new supplement, especially for children, pregnant women, or individuals with pre-existing medical conditions.

5. Can Ginkgo Biloba be used alongside other supplements?
Ginkgo Biloba can be used alongside other supplements, but it is important to be cautious about potential interactions. Some supplements or medications may interact with Ginkgo Biloba, so it is best to consult with a healthcare professional or pharmacist to ensure safe


Ginkgo biloba is a popular herbal supplement with a long history of use in traditional medicine. While it is known for its potential cognitive and circulatory benefits, the scientific evidence is mixed, and further research is needed to establish its effectiveness in various conditions. It is important to approach ginkgo biloba supplementation with caution, considering the potential side effects, drug interactions, and individual variations in response. As with any supplement or treatment, it is best to consult with a healthcare professional before incorporating ginkgo biloba into your healthcare regimen.

Disclaimer: This article is only for providing a general knowledge perspective and does not constitute medical advice. Kindly seek the help of a trained medical practitioner before initiating any treatment.


  1. Comparison of Two Old Phytochemicals versus Two Newly Researched Plant-Derived Compounds: Potential for Brain and Other Relevant Ailments (
  2. The Maidenhair Tree (Ginkgo biloba, L.) on JSTOR
  3. Endophytes from Gingko biloba: the current status (
  4. Advances in Ginkgo biloba research: Genomics and metabolomics perspectives | African Journal of Biotechnology (
  5. Status-of-Maiden-Hair-Tree-Ginkgo-biloba-Living-Fossils-Becoming-Endangered.pdf (
  6. Medicinal Plants of South Asia: Novel Sources for Drug Discovery – Google Books
  7. Ginkgo biloba extract for age‐related macular degeneration – PMC (
  8. Ginkgo biloba for cognitive improvement in healthy individuals – PMC (
  9. A Brief Review On Ginkgo Biloba L. (Maidenhair Tree) A Rare  Multipurpose Medicinal Plant (
  10. Ginkgo biloba as an Alternative Medicine in the Treatment of Anxiety in Dementia and other Psychiatric Disorders (
  11. Effects of Ginkgo biloba tablets plus aerosol budesonide on T helper cell subsets in children with asthma. (
  12. Traversing through half a century research timeline on Ginkgo biloba, in transforming a botanical rarity into an active functional food ingredient – ScienceDirect

Livayur Ayurvedic Team

The LivAyur Team includes more than 10 Ayurveda specialists, with more than 20 years of experience. They have a deep understanding of Ayurveda and are committed to sharing their expertise through our blogs, videos, live sessions, and consultations. Our experts also stay updated & monitor on the latest developments in health and wellness.


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